Due to a great climate and global positioning, Nigeria is one of most fortunate nations when it comes to agriculture. In this way, the Nigerians have plenty of agricultural resources to explore and even to export. By effectively managing the available agricultural resources, Nigeria is also able to improve its economic status by exporting.
Agricultural implications in Nigerian economic development
Whether we are thinking of the coastal mangrove, northern savannas, woodland savannas or rain forests – Nigeria has it all. Besides the petroleum industry, the agriculture industry is also an important resource for economic development and increase of GDP level. Having this in mind, during the last 20 years more than 40% of the GDP level was derived from the agricultural sector.
In the same time, agriculture is an important factor in Nigeria since it contributes to the rate of employment and creates new and reliable employment opportunities. Currently, more than 60% of labor force is concentrated in the agricultural sector. Similarly, farming is a very resourceful activity in Nigeria and only 33% of nation’s land is under cultivation. In this way, the agricultural sector will also be one of the main fields of activity in the future.
Furthermore, the government also favors the development of cooperative societies with the purpose of encouraging the industrial agriculture because in Nigeria due to a diverse climate, it is possible the production of almost all agricultural products in the semi-tropical climate.
Agricultural sectors in Nigeria
Before the 1960’s, agriculture was the main activity in Nigeria. However, once with the development of the oil exporting industry it became necessary the import of food. In order to maximize the agricultural outcomes, other agricultural areas were developed during the last decade.
In this way, the main agricultural sectors in Nigeria are the following:
– Food Crops
The crop production was the main agricultural activity in Nigeria for a long time and currently comprises of beans, rice, palm oil, yams, cocoa, groundnuts, melon and many other food crops that are favored due to the tropical and semi-tropical climate of this nation.
– Cash Crops
In this agricultural sector we may include the production of cotton, rubber, kolanut, gum Arabic, beniseed, palm kernels and many other such crops that can grow in this tropical climate.
In the case of forests, the following forest tees are available in Nigeria: abora, teak, ebony, ekki, black afara, camwood, mahogany, Nigerian walnut. This agricultural sector is an important and resourceful one in Nigeria and it contributes to economic development in the area.
Starting with the 1970’s, a total of 11 million cattle existed and since then on the Nigerian nation has successfully enlarged its livestock production out if which 90% was found in the northern states of the nation. Nowadays, almost all rural households raise their own poultry while chickens represent the predominant poultry in the area. Apart from chickens, in Nigeria there are other animals reared such as cattle, duck, pigs, turkey, sheep, goat, pigeon, donkey and guinea fowls.
This agricultural sector is an important one for Nigeria and ever since the 1970’s when the domestic production of fisheries has been reaching the level of 700.000 tones on a yearly basis. Currently, the fisheries produced within the borders of Nigeria include crabs, shrimps, spade, shark, grunters, cat fish, thread fin, shiny nose and many more.
To conclude, the Nigerian agriculture offers many opportunities to reach economic development on the long run and represents one of the main activities when it comes to export, as well as the petroleum industry. Nevertheless, Nigeria is applying the appropriate solutions in the case of agricultural resource and this gives this nation a competitive advantage as compared to other emerging markets.
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